Eucalyptus, QA

EucaLoader: Load Testing Your Eucalyptus Cloud



After provisioning a cloud that will be used by many users, it is best practice to do load or burn in testing to ensure that it meets your stability and scale requirements. These activities can be performed manually by running commands to run many  instances or create many volumes for example. In order to perform sustained long term tests it is beneficial to have an automated tool that will not only perform the test actions but also allow you to analyze and interpret the results in a simple way.


Over the last year, I have been working with Locust to provide a load testing framework for Eucalyptus clouds. Locust is generally used for load testing web pages but allows for customizable clients which allowed me to hook in our Eutester library in order to generate load. Once I had created my client, I was able to create Locust “tasks” that map to activities on the cloud. Tasks are user interactions like creating a bucket or deleting a volume. Once the tasks were defined I was able to compose them into user profiles that define which types of actions each simulated user will be able to run as well as weighting their probability so that the load can most closely approximate a real world use case. In order to make the deployment of EucaLoader as simple as possible, I have baked the entire deployment into a CloudFormation template. This means that once you have the basics of your deployment done, you can start stressing your cloud and analyzing the results with minimal effort.

Using EucaLoader


In order to use EucaLoader you will first need to load up an Ubuntu Trusty image into your cloud as follows:

# wget
# qemu-img convert -O raw trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.img trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.raw
# euca-install-image -i trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.raw -n trusty -r x86_64 -b trusty --virt hvm

We will also need to clone the EucaLoader repository and install its dependencies:

# git clone
# pip install troposphere

Next we will upload credentials for a test account to our objectstore so that our loader can pull them down for Eutester to use:

# euare-accountcreate loader
# euca_conf --get-credentials --cred-account loader
# s3cmd mb s3://loader
# s3cmd put -P s3://loader/

Launching the stack

Once inside the euca-loader directory we will create our CloudFormation template and then create our stack by passing in the required parameters:

# ./ > loader.cfn
# euform-create-stack --template-f loader.cfn  loader -p KeyName=<your-keypair-name> -p CredentialURL='http://<your-user-facing-service-ip>:8773/services/objectstorage/loader/' -p ImageID=<emi-id-for-trusty> -p InstanceType=m1.large

At this point you should be able to monitor the stack creation with the following commands

# euform-describe-stacks
# euform-describe-stack-events loader

Once the stack shows as CREATE_COMPLETE, the describe stacks command should show outputs which point you to the Locust web portal (WebPortalUrl) and to your Grafana dashboard for monitoring trends (GrafanaURL).

Starting the tests

In order to start your user simulation, point your web browser to the the WebPortalUrl as defined by the describe stacks output. Once there you can enter the amount of users you’d like to simulate as well as how quickly those users should “hatch”.


Once you’ve started the test, the statistics for each type of requests will begin to show up in the Locust dashboard.


See your results

In order to better visualize the trends in your results, EucaLoader provides a Grafana dashboard that tracks a few of the requests for various metrics. This dashboard is easily customized to your particular test and is meant as a jumping off point.



Introducing HuevOS+RancherOS


Today is an exciting day in Santa Barbara. We are very pleased to introduce our latest innovation to the world of DevOps. 

HuevOS – the Docker-based open-source operating system for tomorrow’s IT and Dev/Ops professional.  HuevOS 1.0 (SunnySide) is the open-source/free-range/gluten-free solution that forms the perfect complement to RancherOS.  In addition, we’re delighted to begin development on our proprietary blend of Services and Language Software as a Service (SaLSaaS) which, when overlayed atop a HuevOS+RancherOS stack, provides a complete and delicious solution around which your whole day can be centered.

Try HuevOS+RancherOS today and let us know which SaLSaaS we should work on first to ensure your hunger for DevOps is quenched thoroughly.  

To get your first taste visit the following repository which includes our Chef Recipe and a Vagrantfile to get you HuevOS in short order:

If you already have your RancherOS host up its easy to add in our HuevOS to the mix via the Docker Registry:

docker pull viglesiasce/huevos; docker run huevos

A huge thank you to all involved in getting us to this point and being able to ship a 1.0 version of the HuevOS+RancherOS platform.

Happy clucking!!



Deploying Cassandra and Consul with Chef Provisioning



Chef Provisioning (née Chef Metal) is an incredibly flexible way to deploy infrastructure. Its many plugins allow users to develop a single methodology for deploying an application that can then be repeated against many types of infrastructure (AWS, Euca, Openstack, etc). Chef provisioning is especially useful when deploying clusters of machines that make up an application as it allows for machines to be:

  • Staged before deployment
  • Batched for parallelism
  • Deployed in serial when necessary

This level of flexibility means that deploying interesting distributed systems like Cassandra and Consul is a breeze. By leveraging community cookbooks for Consul and Cassandra, we can largely ignore the details of package installation and service management and focus our time on orchestrating the stack in the correct order and configuring the necessary attributes such that our cluster converges properly. For this tutorial we will be deploying:

  • DataStax Cassandra 2.0.x
  • Consul
    • Service discovery via DNS
    • Health checks on a per node basis
  • Consul UI
    • Allows for service health visualization

Once complete we will be able to use Consul’s DNS service to load balance our Cassandra client requests across the cluster as well as use Consul UI in order to keep tabs on our clusters’ health.

In the process of writing up this methodology, I went a step further and created a repository and toolchain for configuring and managing the lifecycle of clustered deployments. The chef-provisioning-recipes repository will allow you to configure your AWS/Euca cloud credentials and images and deploy any of the clustered applications available in the repository.

Steps to reproduce

Install prerequisites

  • Install ChefDK
  • Install package deps (for CentOS 6)
    yum install python-devel gcc git
  • Install python deps:
    easy_install fabric PyYaml
  • Clone the chef-provisioning-recipes repo:
    git clone

Edit config file

The configuration file (config.yml) contains information about how and where to deploy the cluster. There are two main sections in the file:

  1. Profiles
    1. Which credentials/cloud to use
    2. What image to use
    3. What instance type to use
    4. What username to use
  2. Credentials
    1. Cloud endpoints or region
    2. Cloud access and secret keys

Edit the config.yml file found in the repo such that the default profile points to a CentOS 6 image in your cloud and the default credentials point to the proper cloud.

Run the deployment

Once the deployer has been configured we simply need to run it and tell it which cluster we would like to deploy. In this case we’d like to deploy Cassandra so we will run the deployer as follows:

./ cassandra

This will now automate the following process:

  1. Create a chef repository
  2. Download all necessary cookbooks
  3. Create all necessary instances
  4. Deploy Cassandra and Consul

Once this is complete you should be able to see your instances running in your cloud tagged as follows: cassandra-default-N. In order to access your Consul UI dashboard go to http://instance-pub-ip:8500

You should now also be able to query any of your Consul servers for the IPs of your Cassandra cluster:

nslookup cassandra.service.paas.home &amp;amp;amp;lt;instance-pub-ip&amp;amp;amp;gt;

In order to tear down the cluster simply run:

./ cassandra --op destroy
Eucalyptus, QA

Testing Riak CS with Eucalyptus



One of the beautiful things about working with IaaS is the disposable nature of instances. If they are not behaving properly due to a bug or have been misconfigured for some reason, instances can be terminated and rebuilt with more ease than debugging a long lived and churned through Linux system. As a quality engineer, this dispensability has become invaluable in testing and developing new tools without needing to baby physical or virtual machines.

One of the projects I have been working on lately is an easy deployment of Riak CS into the cloud in order to quickly and repeatedly test the object storage integration provided by Eucalyptus in the 4.0 release. Riak CS is a scalable and distributed object store that provides an S3 interface for managing objects and buckets.

Before testing the Eucalyptus orchestration of Riak CS (or any tool/backend/service that Euca supports for that matter), it is important to understand the basic activities that Eucalyptus will be performing on behalf of the user. Thankfully, Neil Soman wrote a great blog post about how our Riak CS integration is designed.

In this model  we can see that we require:

  1. A multi-node Riak CS cluster
  2. A load balancer
  3. A machine to run the Eucalyptus Object Storage Gateway (OSG)

This topology is extremely simple to deploy in Eucalyptus 3.4 using our ELB and by using Vagrant to deploy our Riak CS cluster. Here’ s how to get your groove on.


  1. CentOS 6 image loaded into your cloud
  2. Keypair imported or created in the cloud
  3. Security group authorized for port 8080,8000 and 22
  4. Install Vagrant

Deploy Riak CS

In order to deploy Riak CS in our cloud we will use Vagrant+Chef+Berkshelf as follows:

  1. Install Vagrant plugins using the following commands:
    • vagrant plugin install vagrant-berkshelf
      vagrant plugin install vagrant-omnibus
      vagrant plugin install vagrant-aws
  2. Import the dummy vagrant box necessary to use vagrant-aws:
    • vagrant box add centos
  3. Clone the following repository
    • git clone
  4. Edit the following items in the Vagrantfile to reflect the pre-requisites above and to point to your target cloud
    • aws.access_key_id
    • aws.secret_access_key
    • aws.keypair_name
    • aws.ami
    • override.ssh.private_key_path
    • aws.security_groups
    • aws.endpoint
  5. Set the number of nodes to deploy at the top of the Vagrantfile:
  6.  Once the cloud options are set start the Vagrant “up” process which will deploy the Riak CS nodes and Stanchion:
    • RIAK_CS_CREATE_ADMIN_USER=1 vagrant up --provider=aws
  7. Once Vagrant is complete, login to the first Riak CS node to get its private hostname:
    • vagrant ssh riak1 -c "curl"
  8. Join each node to the first that was deployed. For example, to join the second node to the cluster I would run:
    • vagrant ssh riak2 -c "riak-admin cluster join riak@<riak1-private-hostname>"
      vagrant ssh riak2 -c "riak-admin cluster plan; riak-admin cluster commit"

In order to get your access and secret keys login to http://riak1-public-ip:8000

Load Balance Your Riak CS Cluster

  1. Create an ELB with the following command:
    • eulb-create-lb -z <AZ-of-your-riak-nodes> -l "lb-port=80, protocol=TCP, instance-port=8080,instance-protocol=TCP" RiakCS
  2. The command above will return you the DNS name that you will use as the endpoint for the “objectstorage.s3provider.s3endpoint” property when setting up the OSG. From the sample output below we would use “”
    • DNS_NAME
  3. Register your Riak CS nodes with that load balancer:
    • eulb-register-instances-with-lb --instances <instance-id-1>,<instance-id-2> RiakCS

You have now successfully deployed a Riak CS cluster. You can stop here if you’d like but the real fun starts when you add IAM, ACL, versioning, multipart upload, and bucket lifecycle support to the mix using the Eucalyptus OSG.

True enthusiasts continue below.

Install and Configure the Eucalyptus OSG Tech Preview

  1. Spin up another CentOS 6 instance in the same security group as used above
  2. Follow the instructions found here to finish  the OSG installation and configuration, remember to use the DNS name returned in step 1 from above as the s3endpoint:
Eucalyptus, QA

Creating a Eucalyptus Test Harness: Jenkins,Testlink and Eutester


This post will lead you through the creation of an environment to run automated test plans against a Eucalyptus installation. The tools used were described in my previous post, namely Jenkins (orchestrator), Testlink (planning & metadata), Eutester (functional testing framework). The use case we will be attacking is that of the Developer QA system sandbox.

The only requirements for this setup:

  1. Your machine can run Jenkins
  2. Python 2.6 or greater installed
  3. Python virtualenv is installed (easy_install virtualenv)
  4. Git is installed

Once complete you should be able to run test plans against a running cloud with the click of a button. This has only been tested on my Macbook but should work on any platform that can meet these requirements.

Getting setup

Installing Jenkins

The first step in getting this system up and running is to download and install Jenkins on the desired host machine. When completing this exercise I was using my Mac laptop which led me to use the installer found on the right side of this page: Download Jenkins. Further installation instructions for Linux and Windows can be found here: Installing Jenkins.

Once the installation is complete, point your we browser to port 8080 of the machine you installed Jenkins on, for example http://yourjenkins.machine:8080.  You should now be presented with the main Jenkins dashboard which looks like this:

Installing Jenkins Plugins

The setup we are trying to achieve requires that you install a Jenkins plugin. Luckily for us Jenkins makes this installation a breeze:

  1. Go to your Jenkins URL in a web browser
  2. Click Manage Jenkins on the left
  3. Click Manage Plugins
  4. Click the Available tab
  5. Install the following  required plugin by clicking the checkbox on the left of the row on all of them and then clicking “Download now and install after restart” at the bottom of the page
    • Testlink Plugin
  6. Once the installation is complete click the checkbox to restart Jenkins when there are no jobs running (ie now).

Configure Testlink Plugin

In order to access standardized test plans that are implemented by Eutester scripts and cataloged by Testlink we need to setup the Jenkins Testlink plugin as follows:

  1. Click Manage Jenkinson the left
  2. Click Configure System
  3. Scroll down to the Testlink Section and click the Add button to configure a new Testlink installation to use when pulling test plans and test cases
  4. Configure the options presented as follows:
    • Name: Euca-testlink
    • URL:
    • Developer Key: 7928ee041d5b20ce3f356992d06ab401
  5. Click Save at the bottom of the page

Now that we have Jenkins and its Testlink plugin configured we need to add a job that uses this functionality. For users not wishing know the internals of the job, instructions follow for importing the pre-built job. For the advanced/curious user the internals of the job are explained in another blog post.

Importing the Pre-configured Job

  1. Go to  your Jenkins home directory (Mac: /Users/Shared/Jenkins/Home, Linux: /var/lib/jenkins)  in a terminal
  2. Create a directory called testlink-testplan in the $JENKINS_HOME/jobs directory
  3. Copy this config file to that directory: Job Config
  4. Change the ownership of the entire testlink-testplan directory to the jenkins user:
    • chown -R jenkins:jenkins $JENKINS_HOME/jobs/testlink-testplan
  5. Go to the Manage Jenkins page then click Reload Configuration from Disk
  6. Upon returning to the main dashboard you should see your job ready to run.
  7. You can now skip down to the section below entitled Running and Viewing Your Test if you do not care to know the internals of the job.

Running and Viewing Your Test

Running the test

  1. In order to run the test job we have just configured return to the Jenkins main dashboard by clicking Jenkinsin the top left corner of the Jenkins page.
  2. Click the Build Now button on the left of the testlink-testplan job 
  3. Ensure that parameters are set properly. The defaults should work other than the topology which will require the IPs of the machines you are trying to test against.

Viewing the test

  1. On the left side of the screen you should see the Build History which should now show at least 1 job running. Look for a build with a blue progress bar under it.

  2. If you would like to see the console output of the currently running test click the blue progress bar.
  3. If you would like to see the main page for the build click the date above the blue progress bar. This screen shows a summary of the test results and any archived artifacts when the build has completed.
  4. The trend button will show a plot of the test duration over time.

You can rinse and repeat as many times as you’d like with this procedure.

Testcases and Testplans

Currently the only testplan available is CloudBasics but soon more testcases and plans will be added. I will make sure to update this blog post with the latest list.

Eucalyptus, Uncategorized

Bridging the Gap: Manual to Automated Testing


Manual testing is a key element to a hardened QA process allowing for the human mind to be used in tasks that lend themselves to critical thinking or are simply not automatable such as:

  • Exploratory (also called ad-hoc) which allows testers to test strange and unusual codepaths
  • Use Case which intends to simulate as closely as possible the end to end solution that will be deployed
  • Usablility which aims to test whether the product meets the timing, performance, and accessibility needs of the end user

The only way to have enough time to do these kinds of tests (my favorite is exploratory) is to automate as much of the functional and regression testing as you can. Once you know a proper and reliable procedure for producing a functional test it is time to stick that in a regression suite so that it no longer needs to be run by a human.

At Eucalyptus, we have a great system for provisioning and testing a Eucalyptus install (developed by Kyo Lee) which is currently in its third iteration. As new features are added and as the codebase expands, we have identified the need to tie this system into others in order to make a more fluid transition of our manual tests into the automation system. Currently we use three main systems for evaluating the quality of Eucalyptus:

  • Jenkins to continuously build the software
  • Testlink (an open source test plan management tool) to maintain our manual tests
  • Automated provisioning system to run regression suites against the code base.
The key to the integration of these three existing systems will be the use of Jenkins to orchestrate jobs, Testlink to hold test meta-data, and the existing automated system for provisioning a Eucalyptus install.  The flow of adding a test case into the automation system will be as follows:
  1. Upload your test script (hopefully written with Eutester) to a git repository.
  2. Create a testcase in Testlink that defines the procedure and any necessary preconditions. If the case to be automated is already in manual testing, this can be skipped.
  3. Add info to the testcase that describes where your new test script lives.
  4. Add the test case to a testplan through Testlink.
Once the test case has been entered to a testplan, there are two things that can happen:
  • If the test was added to the continuous integration suites, it will automatically run against all of our platforms
  • If the test was added to a personal testplan, it can be kicked off manually using the Jenkins UI

With this flow defined lets take a look at  how the individual pieces will interface.


Jenkins to Testlink:

Testlink is a flexible tool that allows testplans with great complexity to be organized efficiently. Although this on its own makes Testlink my top choice for multi-platform manual test organization, the real secret sauce comes from the API that it presents.  The API gives you programatic access to the metadata of any testplan by using an XML-RPC interface. In order to access this API through Jenkins, I could hack together a set of Python scripts to speak Testlink but instead all that work has been done for me in the Testlink Plugin. This plugin allows me (as part of a Jenkins “build”) to pull in a testplan with all of its testcases and their respective custom fields and execute a build step/script for each case.  In order to take advantage of this I have added a few crucial custom fields to each test case in Testlink:

  • Git Repository
  • Test Script Path
  • Test Script
  • Script Arguments
With these few pieces of information we can allow anybody with a reachable git repo to add a testcase that can be run through automated QA. The testcase in testlink will look like this:
The script I would use against each testcase would look something like:

In the above build step I am simply cloning the repo that the testcase exists in, then running the script with the prescribed arguments. This gives the test case creator enough extensibility to create complex testcases while standardizing the procedure of submitting a test case to the system. Another advantage of including a configurable arguments field is that the same script can be parameterized to execute many test cases.

Jenkins to QA Provisioning

Our current QA system has recently been upgraded to include a user facing API for deploying Eucalyptus against pre-defined topologies, network modes, and distributions. In order to hook into this system we will be using Python and the json library to parse the data returned from the QA system. The types of calls we will be issuing are:

  • Start provisioning
  • Wait for provisioning to complete
  • Free machines used in test
These steps will each be thrown into a Jenkins job that will allow us to re-use the code across many other jobs using the Parameterized Build Trigger Plugin.

Use Cases:

In this blog post we have shown how this integration can be used to quickly move a test from being manually tested to being automated but in order for this integration to be a true success it must deliver on at least these other use cases which will be described in further posts:

  • Continuous Integration
  • Test Report Generation
  • Developer QA system sandbox

Would you like to help us continue to innovate our QA process? We are looking for talented engineers to work with us on the next generation of cloud testing. Click here to apply


Eutester Basics Part III: Creating your first testcase

Intro to unittest

When writing test cases using Eutester one can simply write a single Python script that runs through from start to finish and exits when it encounters an error. This kind of script will be easy to put together but will not be very maintainable moving forward when you want to reuse routines in a different script or share your work with the community. In order to make sharing of test case code more efficient we have chosen to leverage the unittest library present in the standard library since Python 2.6. This library for creating, cataloging, and executing testcases adds value in creating cases by providing some constructs that will be familiar to anyone who has worked or contributed as a tester. In this tutorial I will show how to leverage unittest to write a test case that can be contributed back to the community or used as reproducible steps for a bug filed against Eucalyptus.

Unittest Basics

A test case can be thought of as a series of steps executed in a particular order that identify whether a system is operating properly. Each of these steps have an expected result. When the expected results are not met the case can be marked as a failure. Python unittest allows us to quickly create these test cases and reuse code from case to case by allowing us to inherit from the TestCase class.

import unittest
from eucaops import Eucaops

class MyFirstTest(unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        self.tester = Eucaops(credpath="/home/ubuntu/.euca")
        self.keypair = self.tester.add_keypair() = self.tester.add_group()
        self.tester.authorize_group(, port=-1, protocol="icmp")
        self.reservation = None

    def testInstance(self):

    def tearDown(self):
        if self.reservation is not None:
        self.tester.local("rm " + + ".pem")

As you can see from above, two of the major building blocks of a test case are the setup and teardown phases. The setup phase is giving the test case the necessary artifacts to execute. Our first case requires a keypair and a security group authorized for both SSH and Ping. The teardown phase will then remove the artifacts created regardless of whether the test passed or failed. Cleanup up after your tests will be very important as you begin to run many cases and suites against your system. Each test case should be able to run without leaving behind artifacts and without relying on artifacts that it did not create. Making tests idempotent will make it easier for developers, testers, and others to reproduce the exact condition you produced with your case.

Now that we have prepared our test case with both setup and teardown steps it is time to create a routine that actually tests something. Our test method will validate the following:

  1. Running an instance
  2. Network connectivity between the instance and the test machine
  3. Commands can be executed on the remote host

We will be filling out the testInstance method with the following:

def testInstance(self):
        image = self.tester.get_emi(root_device_type="instance-store")
        ### 1) Run an instance
            self.reservation = self.tester.run_instance(image,,
        except Exception, e:
  "Caught an exception when running the instance: " + str(e))
        for instance in self.reservation.instances:
            ### 2) Ping the instance
            ping_result =
            self.assertTrue(ping_result, "Ping to instance failed")
            ### 3) Run command on instance
            uname_result = instance.sys("uname -r")
            self.assertNotEqual(len(uname_result), 0, "uname failed")

Upon inspection of this code you will notice that we are using  the assertion methods, another great element provided to us by the unittest framework. These methods are useful for making sure that your script does not continue to execute after a failure has been encountered. In our case we are using assertTrue to make sure the ping succeeded before proceeding. The next assertion we use is assertNotEqual when checking that the result of running the uname command actually has some output.

Running your test

Once we have setUp, tearDown, and one other test method, we are ready to run this testcase. In order to run the case we need to add a main function that will be called when we run this class from the command line. In order to do this add the following to the bottom of your testcase file:

if __name__ == '__main__':

After setting execution permissions, you will be able to call your testcase script directly from the command line. The trick here is that we prefaced our method name with the word “test” so the unittest library knows that it is a special method and requires that we run the setUp and tearDown methods first.  You can build out as many test methods as you’d like in this one file using the same setUp and tearDown methods.